As of 1854

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As of 1854

Post by Lindsay » Thu Jan 31, 2019 11:11 pm

-Professor Benjamin Silliman of Yale University is the first person to fractionate petroleum into its individual components, by distillation.
-The Icelandic trade is opened to merchants other than Danes.
The French fashion label Louis Vuitton is founded.

January 4 – The McDonald Islands are discovered by Captain William McDonald aboard the Samarang.
January 20 – The North Carolina General Assembly in the United States charters the Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad, to run from Goldsboro through New Bern, to the newly created seaport of Morehead City, near Beaufort (That's about 96 miles!)
January 21 – The iron clipper RMS Tayleur runs aground off the east coast of Ireland, on her maiden voyage out of Liverpool, bound for Australia, with the loss of at least 300 out of 650 on board.

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Re: As of 1854

Post by daviomac » Mon Apr 01, 2019 10:31 am

In 1854, related to slavery (from Wikipedia)

Democratic U.S. Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois proposes the Kansas–Nebraska Bill to open good Midwestern farmland to settlement and to encourage building of a transcontinental railroad with a terminus at Chicago. Whether slavery would be permitted in a territory would be determined by a vote of the people at the time a territory is organized.[170][171][172][173]

Congress enacts the Kansas–Nebraska Act, providing that popular sovereignty, a vote of the people when a territory is organized, will decide "all questions pertaining to slavery" in the Kansas–Nebraska territories. This abrogates the Missouri Compromise prohibition of slavery north of the 36°30' line of latitude and increases Northerners' fears of a Slave Power encroaching on the North.[173] Both Northerners and Southerners rush to the Kansas and Nebraska territories to express their opinion in the voting. Especially in Kansas, many voters are pro-slavery Missouri residents who enter Kansas simply to vote.[172]

Opponents of slavery and the Kansas–Nebraska Act meet in Ripon, Wisconsin in February, and subsequently meet in other Northern states, to form the Republican Party.[172] The party includes many former members of the Whig and Free Soil parties and some northern Democrats. Republicans win most of the Northern state seats in the U.S. House of Representatives in the fall 1854 elections as 66 of 91 Northern state Democrats are defeated. Abraham Lincoln emerges as a Republican leader in the West (Illinois).[160][171]

Eli Thayer forms the New England Emigrant Aid Society to encourage settlement of Kansas by persons opposed to slavery.[160]

Bitter fighting breaks out in Kansas Territory as pro-slavery men win a majority of seats in the legislature, expel anti-slavery legislators and adopt the pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution for the proposed state of Kansas.[172][173]

The Ostend Manifesto, a dispatch sent from France by the U.S. ministers to Britain, France and Spain after a meeting in Ostend, Belgium, describes the rationale for the United States to purchase Cuba (a territory which had slavery) from Spain and implies the U.S. should declare war if Spain refuses to sell the island. Four months after the dispatch is drafted, it is published in full at the request of the U.S. House of Representatives. Northern states view the document as a Southern attempt to extend slavery. European nations consider it as a threat to Spain and to Imperial power. The U.S. government never acts upon the recommendations in the Ostend Manifesto.[146]

Anthony Burns, a fugitive slave from Virginia, is arrested by federal agents in Boston. Radical abolitionists attack the court house and kill a deputy marshal in an unsuccessful attempt to free Burns.[160][174]

Abolitionist editor Sherman Booth was arrested for violating the Fugitive Slave Act when he helped incite a mob to rescue an escaped slave, Joshua Glover, in Wisconsin from U.S. Marshal Stephen V. R. Ableman.[175]

The Knights of the Golden Circle, a fraternal organization that wants to expand slavery to Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean Islands, including Cuba, and northern South America, is founded in Louisville, Kentucky.[146]

Former Mississippi Governor John A. Quitman begins to raise money and volunteers to invade Cuba, but is slow to act and cancels the invasion plan in spring 1855 when President Pierce says he would enforce the neutrality laws.[176]

The Know-Nothing Party or American Party, which includes many nativist former Whigs, sweeps state and local elections in parts of some Northern states. The party demands ethnic purification, opposes Catholics (because of the presumed power of the Pope over them), and opposes corruption in local politics. The party soon fades away.[160][171]

George Fitzhugh's pro-slavery Sociology for the South is published.[177]

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Re: As of 1854

Post by Lindsay » Fri Apr 05, 2019 4:39 pm

I've bolded the really BIG stuff, and put in blue the stuff that would effect us directly on a local level.


February 11 – Major streets are lit by coal gas for the first time by the San Francisco Gas Company; 86 such lamps are turned on this evening in San Francisco, California.

February 13 – Mexican troops force William Walker and his troops to retreat to Sonora.

February 14 – Texas is linked by telegraph with the rest of the United States, when a connection between New Orleans and Marshall, Texas is completed.

February 17 – The British recognize the independence of the Orange Free State in Southern Africa; its official independence is declared six days later in the Orange River Convention.

February 27 – Britain sends Russia an ultimatum to withdraw from two Romanian provinces it has conquered, Moldavia and Wallachia.

February 28 – The Republican Party (United States) is founded in Ripon, Wisconsin.


The British East India Company annexes Jhansi State in India under the doctrine of lapse.

March 1
The British Inman Line's SS City of Glasgow sets out from Liverpool on passage to the United States with 480 on board; she is lost without trace.
German psychologist Friedrich Eduard Beneke disappears; 2 years later his remains are found in the canal near Charlottenburg.

March 3 – Australia's first telegraph line, linking Melbourne and Williamstown, opens.

March 11 – A Royal Navy fleet sails from Britain, under Vice Admiral Sir Charles Napier.

March 20 – The Boston Public Library opens to the public in the United States.

March 24 – In Venezuela, slavery is abolished.

March 27 – Crimean War: The United Kingdom declares war on Russia.

March 28 – France declares war on Russia.

March 31 – Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the United States Navy signs the Convention of Kanagawa with the Japanese government (the Tokugawa shogunate), opening the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to American trade (see History of Japan).


April 1 – Hard Times begins serialisation in Charles Dickens' magazine, Household Words.

April 16 – The United States packet ship Powhattan is wrecked off the New Jersey shore, with more than 200 victims.

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Re: As of 1854

Post by Lindsay » Sun Jun 16, 2019 10:05 pm

Again - I've bolded the really BIG stuff


May 27 – Taiping Rebellion: United States diplomatic minister Robert McLane arrives at the Heavenly Capital aboard the American warship USS Susquehanna.

May 30 – The Kansas–Nebraska Act becomes law (replacing the Missouri Compromise of 1820), creating the Kansas Territory and the Nebraska Territory, west of the State of Missouri and the State of Iowa. The Kansas–Nebraska Act also establishes that these two new Territories will decide either to allow or disallow slavery, depending on balloting by their residents (these areas would have been strictly "free territory" under the Missouri Compromise, which allowed slavery in the State of Missouri but disallowed it in any other new state north of latitude 36° 30', which forms most of the southern boundary of Missouri. This prohibition of slavery extended all the way from the western boundary of Missouri to the Pacific Ocean).


The Grand Excursion takes prominent Eastern United States inhabitants from Chicago to Rock Island, Illinois by railroad, then up the Mississippi River to Saint Paul, Minnesota by steamboat.

June 10 – The first class of the United States Naval Academy graduates at Annapolis, Maryland.

June 21 – Battle of Bomarsund in the Åland Islands off the coast of Finland: British Royal Navy seaman's mate Charles D. Lucas throws a live Russian artillery shell overboard by hand before it explodes, for which he is awarded the first Victoria Cross in 1857.


July 4 – James Ambrose Cutting takes out the first of his three United States patents for improvements to the wet plate collodion process (Ambrotype photography).

July 6 -
In Jackson, Michigan, the first convention of the U.S. Republican Party is held.
Said Pasha succeeds his nephew Abbas, as the Pasha of Egypt.

July 7 – The Bombay Spinning and Weaving Company is established as the first cotton mill in India by Cowasjee Nanabhoy Davar and associates.

July 17 – The Bienio progresista revolutionary coup occurs in Spain.

July 19 – Wood's despatch is sent by Charles Wood, 1st Viscount Halifax to Lord Dalhousie, Governor General of India, proposing radical improvements to the Indian educational system.


August 9 – Johann succeeds to the throne of Saxony, on the death of his brother.

August 16 – Battle of Bomarsund: Russian troops on the island of Bomarsund, in the Åland Islands, surrender to French–British troops.

August 27 – English lawyer Alfred Wills and party set out for the first ascent of the Wetterhorn in Switzerland, regarded as the start of the "golden age of alpinism".[5]

August 31–September 8 – An epidemic of cholera in London kills 10,000. Dr John Snow traces the source of one outbreak (that killed 500) to a single water pump, validating his theory that cholera is water-borne, and forming the starting point for epidemiology.

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Re: As of 1854

Post by Lindsay » Thu Nov 28, 2019 12:27 am


September 9 – British Inman Line's SS City of Philadelphia is wrecked off Cape Race (Newfoundland) on her maiden voyage without loss of life.

September 20 – Crimean War: Battle of Alma – The French–British alliance wins the first major land engagement of the war.

September 27 – SS Arctic disaster: The American paddle steamer SS Arctic sinks after a collision with the much smaller French ship SS Vesta, 50 miles (80 km) off the coast of Newfoundland, with approximately 320 deaths.


October 1 – The watch company founded in 1850 in Roxbury, Massachusetts, by Aaron Lufkin Dennison, relocates to Waltham, to become the Waltham Watch Company, pioneer in the American system of watch manufacturing.

October 9–11 – United States diplomats in Europe meet and draft the Ostend Manifesto, setting out a rationale for the U.S. to acquire Cuba from Spain.

October 6 – The great fire of Newcastle and Gateshead in England is ignited by a spectacular explosion.

October 17 – The Age newspaper is founded in Melbourne, Australia.

October 25 – Crimean War: Battle of Balaclava – The allies gain an overall victory, except for the disastrous cavalry Charge of the Light Brigade, from which only 200 of 700 men survive.

October 26 – Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen, queen consort of Bavaria (b. 1792) dies.


Florence Nightingale and her team of 38 trained volunteer nurses, having set out on October 21 from England, arrive at Selimiye Barracks in Scutari in the Ottoman Empire, to care for British Army troops invalided from the Crimean War.[7]

The Mute Rebellion breaks out in Sweden.

November 5 – Crimean War: Battle of Inkerman – The Russians are defeated.

November 9 – Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton, philanthropist, wife of Alexander Hamilton (b. 1757) dies

November 14 – Great Storm of 1854 in the Black Sea: 19 British transport and other ships (plus 2 French) supporting the Crimean War are wrecked with the loss of at least 287 men.

November 17 – In Egypt, the Suez Canal Company is formed.


December 3 – The Eureka Stockade Miners' Rebellion breaks out in Ballarat, Victoria (Australia).

December 8 – Pope Pius IX in the apostolic constitution Ineffabilis Deus defines ex Cathedra the dogma of Immaculate Conception, which holds that the Blessed Virgin Mary was conceived without original sin.

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